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Define an empty list

Assign the variable "list" to a list with no elements
erlang
List = [],

Define a static list

Define the list [One, Two, Three, Four, Five]
erlang
List = [one, two, three, four, five],
List = ['One', 'Two', 'Three', 'Four', 'Five'],

Join the elements of a list, separated by commas

Given the list [Apple, Banana, Carrot] produce "Apple, Banana, Carrot"
erlang
Result = string:join(Fruit, ", "),
Result = lists:foldl(fun (E, Acc) -> Acc ++ ", " ++ E end, hd(Fruit), tl(Fruit)),
Result = lists:flatten([ hd(Fruit) | [ ", " ++ X || X <- tl(Fruit)]]).

Join the elements of a list, in correct english

Create a function join that takes a List and produces a string containing an english language concatenation of the list. It should work with the following examples:
join([Apple, Banana, Carrot]) = "Apple, Banana, and Carrot"
join([One, Two]) = "One and Two"
join([Lonely]) = "Lonely"
join([]) = ""
erlang
io:format("~s~n", [join(Fruit)]).

% ------

join([]) -> "";
join([W|Ws]) -> join(Ws, W).

join([], S) -> S;
join([W], S) -> join([], S ++ " and " ++ W);
join([W|Ws], S) -> join(Ws, S ++ ", " ++ W).
%% According to the reference manual, "string is not a data type in Erlang."
%% Instead it has lists of integers. But I/O functions in general accept
%% IO lists, where an IO list is either a list of IO lists or an integer.
%% This gives you O(1) string concatenation.

-module(commalist).
-export([join/1]).

join([]) -> "";
join([W]) -> W;
join([W1, W2]) -> [W1, " and ", W2];
join([W1, W2, W3]) -> [W1, ", ", W2, ", and ", W3];
join([W1|Ws]) -> [W1, ", ", join(Ws)].

Produce the combinations from two lists

Given two lists, produce the list of tuples formed by taking the combinations from the individual lists. E.g. given the letters ["a", "b", "c"] and the numbers [4, 5], produce the list: [["a", 4], ["b", 4], ["c", 4], ["a", 5], ["b", 5], ["c", 5]]
erlang
Combinations =
lists:foldl(fun (Number, Acc) -> Acc ++ lists:map(fun (Letter) -> {Letter, Number} end, Letters) end, [], Numbers),
Combinations = lists:keysort(2, sofs:to_external(sofs:product(sofs:set(Letters), sofs:set(Numbers))))
[[A, B] || A <- ["a", "b", "c"], B <- [4, 5]].

From a List Produce a List of Duplicate Entries

Taking a list:
["andrew", "bob", "chris", "bob"]

Write the code to produce a list of duplicates in the list:
["bob"]
erlang
{_, Result} = lists:foldl(
fun(X, {Uniq, Dupl}) -> case lists:member(X, Uniq) of
true -> {Uniq,[X | Dupl]};
_ -> {[X | Uniq], Dupl}
end
end,
{[], []},
List),
Fun = fun
([X | Xs], F) -> case lists:member(X, Xs) of
true -> [X | F(Xs, F)];
_ -> F(Xs, F)
end;
([], _) -> []
end,
Result = Fun(List, Fun).

Fetch an element of a list by index

Given the list [One, Two, Three, Four, Five], fetch the third element ('Three')
erlang
Result = lists:nth(3, List),
Result = element(3, list_to_tuple(List)),
{Left, _} = lists:split(3, List), Result = lists:last(Left),
Result = nth0(2, List),

Fetch the last element of a list

Given the list [Red, Green, Blue], access the last element ('Blue')
erlang
Result = lists:last(List),
Result = last(List),
Result = hd(lists:reverse(List)),
Result = lists:nth(length(List), List),

Find the common items in two lists

Given two lists, find the common items. E.g. given beans = ['broad', 'mung', 'black', 'red', 'white'] and colors = ['black', 'red', 'blue', 'green'], what are the bean varieties that are also color names?
erlang
Beans = sets:from_list([broad, mung, black, red, white]), Colors = sets:from_list([black, red, blue, green]),

Common = sets:to_list(sets:intersection(Beans, Colors)),

Display the unique items in a list

Display the unique items in a list, e.g. given ages = [18, 16, 17, 18, 16, 19, 14, 17, 19, 18], display the unique elements, i.e. with duplicates removed.
erlang
Ages = sets:to_list(sets:from_list([18, 16, 17, 18, 16, 19, 14, 17, 19, 18])), io:format("~w~n", [Ages]).
lists:usort([18, 16, 17, 18, 16, 19, 14, 17, 19, 18]).

Remove an element from a list by index

Given the list [Apple, Banana, Carrot], remove the first element to produce the list [Banana, Carrot]
erlang
Result = tl(List),
[_|Result] = List,
N = 1, {Left, Right} = lists:split(N - 1, List), Result = Left ++ tl(Right),
Result = drop(1, List),

Remove the last element of a list

erlang
Result = init(List),
Result = take(length(List) - 1, List),
Result = lists:reverse(tl(lists:reverse(List))),
lists:sublist(List,length(List)-1)

Rotate a list

Given a list ["apple", "orange", "grapes", "bananas"], rotate it by removing the first item and placing it on the end to yield ["orange", "grapes", "bananas", "apple"]
erlang
N = 1, {Left, Right} = lists:split(N, List), Result = Right ++ Left,
N = 1, Result = rotate(N, List),

Gather together corresponding elements from multiple lists

Given several lists, gather together the first element from every list, the second element from every list, and so on for all corresponding index values in the lists. E.g. for these three lists, first = ['Bruce', 'Tommy Lee', 'Bruce'], last = ['Willis', 'Jones', 'Lee'], years = [1955, 1946, 1940] the result should produce 3 actors. The middle actor should be Tommy Lee Jones.
erlang
First = ['Bruce', 'Tommy Lee', 'Bruce'], Last = ['Willis', 'Jones', 'Lee'], Years = [1955, 1946, 1940],

Result = lists:zip3(First, Last, Years),

List Combinations

Given two source lists (or sets), generate a list (or set) of all the pairs derived by combining elements from the individual lists (sets). E.g. given suites = ['H', 'D', 'C', 'S'] and faces = ['2', '3', '4', '5', '6', '7', '8', '9', '10', 'J', 'Q', 'K', 'A'], generate the deck of 52 cards, confirm the deck size and check it contains an expected card, say 'Ace of Hearts'.
erlang
Cards = lists:foldl(fun (Suite, Acc) -> Acc ++ lists:flatmap(fun (Face) -> [{Suite, Face}] end, Faces) end, [], Suites),

io:format("Deck has ~B cards~n", [length(Cards)]),
IsMember = lists:member({h, 'A'}, Cards),
io:format("~s~n", [if IsMember -> "Deck contains 'Ace of Hearts'" ; true -> "'Ace of Hearts' not in deck" end]),
Cards = sofs:to_external(sofs:product(sofs:set(Suites), sofs:set(Faces))),

io:format("Deck has ~B cards~n", [length(Cards)]),
IsMember = lists:member({h, 'A'}, Cards),
io:format("~s~n", [if IsMember -> "Deck contains 'Ace of Hearts'" ; true -> "'Ace of Hearts' not in deck" end]),
Deck2 = [{S, V} || S <- [d, c, h, s], V <- [2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 'J', 'Q', 'K', 'A']],
52 = length(Deck2),
true = lists:member({h, 'A'}, Deck2).

Perform an operation on every item of a list

Perform an operation on every item of a list, e.g.
for the list ["ox", "cat", "deer", "whale"] calculate
the list of sizes of the strings, e.g. [2, 3, 4, 5]
erlang
lists:map(fun (X) ->length(X) end, List).

Split a list of things into numbers and non-numbers

Given a list that might contain e.g. a string, an integer, a float and a date,
split the list into numbers and non-numbers.
erlang
% Wrapped call to the auxiliary function
number_split(Xs) ->
number_split(Xs, [], []).

% The auxiliary function
number_split([], Num, NonNum) ->
{Num, NonNum};
number_split([X|Xs], Num, NonNum) ->
case is_number(X) of
true ->
number_split(Xs, [X|Num], NonNum);
false ->
number_split(Xs, Num, [X|NonNum])
end.
List = ["hello", 25, 3.14, calendar:local_time()],
{Numbers, NonNumbers} = lists:partition(fun(E) -> is_number(E) end, List)

Test if a condition holds for all items of a list

Given a list, test if a certain logical condition (i.e. predicate) holds for all items of the list.
erlang
Result = lists:all(Pred, List).

Test if a condition holds for any items of a list

Given a list, test if a certain logical condition (i.e. predicate) holds for any items of the list.
erlang
Result = lists:any(Pred, List).