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Define an empty map

erlang
Map = dict:new(),
Map = orddict:new(),
Map = gb_trees:empty(),
Map = ets:new(the_map_name, [set, private, {keypos, 1}]),

Define an unmodifiable empty map

erlang

% Erlang data structures are immutable - updating a 'map' sees a modified copy created
Map = dict:new(),

Define an initial map

Define the map {circle:1, triangle:3, square:4}
erlang
Map = dict:from_list([{circle, 1}, {triangle, 3}, {square, 4}]),
Map0 = dict:new(),

% Erlang variables are 'single-assignment' i.e. they cannot be reassigned
Map1 = dict:store(circle, 1, Map0),
Map2 = dict:store(triangle, 3, Map1),
Map3 = dict:store(square, 4, Map2),
Map0 = gb_trees:empty(),

Map1 = gb_trees:enter(circle, 1, Map0),
Map2 = gb_trees:enter(triangle, 3, Map1),
Map3 = gb_trees:enter(square, 4, Map2),
Map = gb_trees:from_orddict(lists:keysort(1, [{circle, 1}, {triangle, 3}, {square, 4}])),
Map = ets:new(the_map_name, [ordered_set, private, {keypos, 1}]),
ets:insert(Map, [{circle, 1}, {triangle, 3}, {square, 4}]),

Check if a key exists in a map

Given a map pets {joe:cat,mary:turtle,bill:canary} print "ok" if an pet exists for "mary"
erlang
dict:is_key(mary, Pets) andalso begin io:format("ok~n"), true end.
IsMember = ets:member(Pets, mary), if (IsMember) -> io:format("ok~n") ; true -> false end.
case gb_trees:lookup(mary, Pets) of none -> false ; _ -> io:format("ok~n") end.

Retrieve a value from a map

Given a map pets {joe:cat,mary:turtle,bill:canary} print the pet for "joe" ("cat")
erlang
dict:is_key(joe, Pets) andalso begin io:format("~w~n", [dict:fetch(joe, Pets)]), true end.
case dict:find(joe, Pets) of error -> false ; {ok, Pet} -> io:format("~w~n", [Pet]) end.
IsMember = ets:member(Pets, joe), if (IsMember) -> io:format("~w~n", [ets:lookup_element(Pets, joe, 2)]) ; true -> false end.
case ets:match(Pets, {joe, '$1'}) of [] -> false ; [[Pet]] -> io:format("~w~n", [Pet]) end.
case gb_trees:lookup(joe, Pets) of none -> false ; {value, Pet} -> io:format("~w~n", [Pet]) end.

Add an entry to a map

Given an empty pets map, add the mapping from "rob" to "dog"
erlang
Pets1 = dict:store(rob, dog, Pets0).
ets:insert(Pets, {rob, dog}).
Pets1 = gb_trees:enter(rob, dog, Pets0).

Remove an entry from a map

Given a map pets {joe:cat,mary:turtle,bill:canary} remove the mapping for "bill" and print "canary"
erlang
Pet = dict:fetch(bill, Pets0), Pets1 = dict:erase(bill, Pets0), io:format("~w~n", [Pet]),
Pet = ets:lookup_element(Pets, bill, 2), ets:delete(Pets, bill), io:format("~w~n", [Pet]),
{value, Pet} = gb_trees:lookup(bill, Pets0), Pets1 = gb_trees:delete(bill, Pets0), io:format("~w~n", [Pet]),

Create a histogram map from a list

Given the list [a,b,a,c,b,b], produce a map {a:2, b:3, c:1} which contains the count of each unique item in the list
erlang
% Imperative Solution
Histogram = histogram(List),
% Functional (1) Solution
Histogram = histogram(List),
lists:foldl(fun(Elem, OldDict) ->
dict:update_counter(Elem, 1, OldDict)
end,
dict:new(),
[a,b,a,c,b,b])).

Categorise a list

Given the list [one, two, three, four, five] produce a map {3:[one, two], 4:[four, five], 5:[three]} which sorts elements into map entries based on their length
erlang
% Imperative Solution
CatList = categorise(List),
% Functional (1) Solution
CatList = categorise(List),