Solved Problems

Output a string to the console

Write the string "Hello World!" to STDOUT
erlang
io:format("Hello, World!~n").

Retrieve a string containing ampersands from the variables in a url

My PHP script first does a query to obtain customer info for a form. The form has first name and last name fields among others. The customer has put entries such as "Ron & Jean" in the first name field in the database. Then the edit form script is called with variables such as

"http://myserver.com/custinfo/edit.php?mode=view&fname=Ron & Jean&lname=Smith".

The script variable for first name $_REQUEST['firstname'] never gets beyond the "Ron" value because of the ampersand in the data.

I have tried various functions like urldecode but all to no avail. I even tried encoding the url before the view screen is painted so that the url looks like "http://myserver/custinfo/edit.php?mode=view&fname="Ronxxnbsp;xxamp;xxnbsp;Jean"&lname=SMITH". (sorry I had to add the xx to replace the ampersand or it didn't display meaningful url contents the browser sees.)

Of course this fails for the same reasons. What is a better approach?
erlang
% encode ampersand in your string using %XX where XX is hex code for ampersand
% optionally encode spaces for completeness sake to keep URL solid
URL = "http://myserver.com/custinfo/edit.php?mode=view&fname=Ron%20%26%20Jean&lname=Smith",
{_, Query} = string:tokens(URL, "?"),
KeyValuePairs = string:tokens(Query, "&"),...

string-wrap

Wrap the string "The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog. " repeated ten times to a max width of 78 chars, starting each line with "> "

Expected output:
> The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog. The quick brown fox jumps over t
> he lazy dog. The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog. The quick brown fox
> jumps over the lazy dog. The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog. The qui
> ck brown fox jumps over the lazy dog. The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy
> dog. The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog. The quick brown fox jumps o
> ver the lazy dog. The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog.
erlang
wrapper(String, Times, Length) ->
StrList = lists:reverse(formatter(string:copies(String, Times), Length, [])),
lists:foreach(fun(Str) -> io:format("~p~n", [Str]) end, StrList).

formatter([], _Length, Acc) -> Acc;
formatter(String, Length, Acc) when length(String) > Length - 1->
{Head, Tail} = lists:split(Length - 1, String),
formatter(string:strip(Tail), Length, [[$>, $ | Head] | Acc]);
formatter(String, Length, Acc) ->
formatter([], Length, [[$>, $ | String] | Acc]).

Define a string containing special characters

Define the literal string "\#{'}${"}/"
erlang
Special = "\\#{'}\${\"}/",

Define a multiline string

Define the string:
"This
Is
A
Multiline
String"
erlang
Text = "This\nIs\nA\nMultiline\nString",

Define a string containing variables and expressions

Given variables a=3 and b=4 output "3+4=7"
erlang
A = 3, B = 4,
io:format("~B+~B=~B~n", [A, B, (A+B)]).

Reverse the characters in a string

Given the string "reverse me", produce the string "em esrever"
erlang
Reversed = lists:reverse("reverse me"),
Reversed = revchars("reverse me"),

Reverse the words in a string

Given the string "This is a end, my only friend!", produce the string "friend! only my end, the is This"
erlang
Reversed = string:join(lists:reverse(string:tokens("This is the end, my only friend!", " ")), " "),

Text wrapping

Wrap the string "The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog. " repeated ten times to a max width of 78 chars, starting each line with "> ", yielding this result:

> The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog. The quick brown fox jumps
> over the lazy dog. The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog. The
> quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog. The quick brown fox jumps
> over the lazy dog. The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog. The
> quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog. The quick brown fox jumps
> over the lazy dog. The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog. The
> quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog.
erlang
TextWrap = textwrap(string:copies(Input, 10), 73 - length(Prefix)),
lists:foreach(fun (Line) -> io:format("~s~n", [string:concat(Prefix, Line)]) end, string:tokens(TextWrap, "\n")).

Remove leading and trailing whitespace from a string

Given the string "  hello    " return the string "hello".
erlang
Trimmed = string:strip(S),

Simple substitution cipher

Take a string and return the ROT13 and ROT47 (Check Wikipedia) version of the string.
For example:
String is: Hello World #123
ROT13 returns: Uryyb Jbeyq #123
ROT47 returns: w6==@ (@C=5 R`ab
erlang
rot13(Str) ->
lists:map(fun(A) ->
if
A >= $A, A =< $Z -> ((A - $A + 13) rem 26) + $A;
A >= $a, A =< $z -> ((A - $a + 13) rem 26) + $a;
true -> A
end
end, Str).

rot47(Str) ->
lists:map(fun(A) ->
if
A >= $!, A =< $~ ->
((A - $! + 47) rem 94) + $!;
true -> A
end
end, Str).

Make a string uppercase

Transform "Space Monkey" into "SPACE MONKEY"
erlang
io:format("~s~n", [string:to_upper("Space Monkey")]).

Make a string lowercase

Transform "Caps ARE overRated" into "caps are overrated"
erlang
io:format("~s~n", [string:to_lower("Caps ARE overRated")]).

Capitalise the first letter of each word

Transform "man OF stEEL" into "Man Of Steel"
erlang
Caps = string:join(lists:map(fun(S) -> to_caps(S) end, string:tokens("man OF stEEL", " ")), " "),

Find the distance between two points

erlang
Distance = distance({point, 34, 78}, {point, 67, -45}),
io:format("~.2f~n", [Distance]).
Distance = distance(point:new(34, 78), point:new(67, -45)),
io:format("~.2f~n", [Distance]).

Zero pad a number

Given the number 42, pad it to 8 characters like 00000042
erlang
Formatted = io_lib:format("~8..0B", [42]),
io:format("~8..0B~n", [42]).

Right Space pad a number

Given the number 1024 right pad it to 6 characters "1024  "
erlang
Formatted = io_lib:format("~-6B", [1024]),
io:format("~-6B~n", [1024]).

Format a decimal number

Format the number 7/8 as a decimal with 2 places: 0.88
erlang
Formatted = io_lib:format("~.2f", [7/8]),
io:format("~.2f~n", [7/8]).

Left Space pad a number

Given the number 73 left pad it to 10 characters "        73"
erlang
Formatted = io_lib:format("~10B", [73]),
io:format("~10B~n", [73]).

Generate a random integer in a given range

Produce a random integer between 100 and 200 inclusive
erlang
RandomInt = gen_rand_integer(100, 200),
99 + rand:uniform(101).

Generate a repeatable random number sequence

Initialise a random number generator with a seed and generate five decimal values. Reset the seed and produce the same values.
erlang
setRNG(RNGState),
io:format("~w~n", [lists:map(fun (_) -> gen_rand_integer(100, 200) end, lists:seq(1, 5))]),

setRNG(RNGState),
io:format("~w~n", [lists:map(fun (_) -> gen_rand_integer(100, 200) end, lists:seq(1, 5))]).

Check if a string matches a regular expression

Display "ok" if "Hello" matches /[A-Z][a-z]+/
erlang
String = "Hello", Regexp = "[A-Z][a-z]+",
is_match(String, Regexp) andalso (begin io:format("ok~n"), true end).
case re:run("Hello", "[A-Z][a-z]+") of {match, _} -> ok end.

Check if a string matches with groups

Display "two" if "one two three" matches /one (.*) three/
erlang
case re:run("one two three", "one (.*) three", [{capture, [1], list}]) of {match, Res} -> hd(Res) end.

Check if a string contains a match to a regular expression

Display "ok" if "abc 123 @#$" matches /\d+/
erlang
% Erlang uses 'egrep'-compatible regular expressions, so shortcuts like '\d' not supported
String = "abc 123 @#$", Regexp = "[0-9]+",
is_match(String, Regexp) andalso (begin io:format("ok~n"), true end).
case re:run("abc 123 @#$", "\\d+") of {match, _} -> ok end.

Loop through a string matching a regex and performing an action for each match

Create a list [fish1,cow3,boat4] when matching "(fish):1 sausage (cow):3 tree (boat):4" with regex /\((\w+)\):(\d+)/
erlang
solve(S) ->
R = "\\((\\w+?)\\):(\\d+)",
{match, M} = re:run(S,R, [global, {capture, all_but_first, list}]),
[ A++N || [A, N] <- M].

Replace the first regex match in a string with a static string

Transform "Red Green Blue" into "R*d Green Blue" by replacing /e/ with "*"
erlang
{ok, Replaced, _} = regexp:sub("Red Green Blue", "e", "*"),
re:replace("Red Green Blue", "e", "*", [{return, list}]).

Replace all regex matches in a string with a static string

Transform "She sells sea shells" into "She X X shells" by replacing /se\w+/ with "X"
erlang
% Erlang uses 'egrep'-compatible regular expressions, so shortcuts like '\w' not supported
{ok, Replaced, _} = regexp:gsub("She sells sea shells", "se[A-Za-z0-9_]+", "X"),
re:replace("She sells sea shells", "se\\w+", "X", [global, {return, list}]).

Replace all regex matches in a string with a dynamic string

Transform "The {Quick} Brown {Fox}" into "The kciuQ Brown xoF" by reversing words in braces using the regex /\{(\w+)\}/.
erlang
% Erlang regular expressions lack both group capture and backreferences, thus this problem is not directly
% solvable. Presented solution is close, but not on-spec

String = "The {Quick} Brown {Fox}",
{match, FieldList} = regexp:matches(String, "\{([A-Za-z0-9_]+)\}"),

NewString = lists:foldl(fun ({Start, Length}, S) -> replstr(S, lists:reverse(string:substr(S, Start, Length)), Start) end, String, FieldList),

Define an empty list

Assign the variable "list" to a list with no elements
erlang
List = [],

Define a static list

Define the list [One, Two, Three, Four, Five]
erlang
List = [one, two, three, four, five],
List = ['One', 'Two', 'Three', 'Four', 'Five'],

Join the elements of a list, separated by commas

Given the list [Apple, Banana, Carrot] produce "Apple, Banana, Carrot"
erlang
Result = string:join(Fruit, ", "),
Result = lists:foldl(fun (E, Acc) -> Acc ++ ", " ++ E end, hd(Fruit), tl(Fruit)),
Result = lists:flatten([ hd(Fruit) | [ ", " ++ X || X <- tl(Fruit)]]).

Join the elements of a list, in correct english

Create a function join that takes a List and produces a string containing an english language concatenation of the list. It should work with the following examples:
join([Apple, Banana, Carrot]) = "Apple, Banana, and Carrot"
join([One, Two]) = "One and Two"
join([Lonely]) = "Lonely"
join([]) = ""
erlang
io:format("~s~n", [join(Fruit)]).

% ------

join([]) -> "";
join([W|Ws]) -> join(Ws, W).

join([], S) -> S;
join([W], S) -> join([], S ++ " and " ++ W);
join([W|Ws], S) -> join(Ws, S ++ ", " ++ W).
%% According to the reference manual, "string is not a data type in Erlang."
%% Instead it has lists of integers. But I/O functions in general accept
%% IO lists, where an IO list is either a list of IO lists or an integer.
%% This gives you O(1) string concatenation.

-module(commalist).
-export([join/1]).

join([]) -> "";
join([W]) -> W;
join([W1, W2]) -> [W1, " and ", W2];
join([W1, W2, W3]) -> [W1, ", ", W2, ", and ", W3];
join([W1|Ws]) -> [W1, ", ", join(Ws)].

Produce the combinations from two lists

Given two lists, produce the list of tuples formed by taking the combinations from the individual lists. E.g. given the letters ["a", "b", "c"] and the numbers [4, 5], produce the list: [["a", 4], ["b", 4], ["c", 4], ["a", 5], ["b", 5], ["c", 5]]
erlang
Combinations =
lists:foldl(fun (Number, Acc) -> Acc ++ lists:map(fun (Letter) -> {Letter, Number} end, Letters) end, [], Numbers),
Combinations = lists:keysort(2, sofs:to_external(sofs:product(sofs:set(Letters), sofs:set(Numbers))))
[[A, B] || A <- ["a", "b", "c"], B <- [4, 5]].

From a List Produce a List of Duplicate Entries

Taking a list:
["andrew", "bob", "chris", "bob"]

Write the code to produce a list of duplicates in the list:
["bob"]
erlang
{_, Result} = lists:foldl(
fun(X, {Uniq, Dupl}) -> case lists:member(X, Uniq) of
true -> {Uniq,[X | Dupl]};
_ -> {[X | Uniq], Dupl}
end
end,
{[], []},
List),
Fun = fun
([X | Xs], F) -> case lists:member(X, Xs) of
true -> [X | F(Xs, F)];
_ -> F(Xs, F)
end;
([], _) -> []
end,
Result = Fun(List, Fun).

Fetch an element of a list by index

Given the list [One, Two, Three, Four, Five], fetch the third element ('Three')
erlang
Result = lists:nth(3, List),
Result = element(3, list_to_tuple(List)),
{Left, _} = lists:split(3, List), Result = lists:last(Left),
Result = nth0(2, List),

Fetch the last element of a list

Given the list [Red, Green, Blue], access the last element ('Blue')
erlang
Result = lists:last(List),
Result = last(List),
Result = hd(lists:reverse(List)),
Result = lists:nth(length(List), List),

Find the common items in two lists

Given two lists, find the common items. E.g. given beans = ['broad', 'mung', 'black', 'red', 'white'] and colors = ['black', 'red', 'blue', 'green'], what are the bean varieties that are also color names?
erlang
Beans = sets:from_list([broad, mung, black, red, white]), Colors = sets:from_list([black, red, blue, green]),

Common = sets:to_list(sets:intersection(Beans, Colors)),

Display the unique items in a list

Display the unique items in a list, e.g. given ages = [18, 16, 17, 18, 16, 19, 14, 17, 19, 18], display the unique elements, i.e. with duplicates removed.
erlang
Ages = sets:to_list(sets:from_list([18, 16, 17, 18, 16, 19, 14, 17, 19, 18])), io:format("~w~n", [Ages]).
lists:usort([18, 16, 17, 18, 16, 19, 14, 17, 19, 18]).

Remove an element from a list by index

Given the list [Apple, Banana, Carrot], remove the first element to produce the list [Banana, Carrot]
erlang
Result = tl(List),
[_|Result] = List,
N = 1, {Left, Right} = lists:split(N - 1, List), Result = Left ++ tl(Right),
Result = drop(1, List),

Remove the last element of a list

erlang
Result = init(List),
Result = take(length(List) - 1, List),
Result = lists:reverse(tl(lists:reverse(List))),
lists:sublist(List,length(List)-1)

Rotate a list

Given a list ["apple", "orange", "grapes", "bananas"], rotate it by removing the first item and placing it on the end to yield ["orange", "grapes", "bananas", "apple"]
erlang
N = 1, {Left, Right} = lists:split(N, List), Result = Right ++ Left,
N = 1, Result = rotate(N, List),

Gather together corresponding elements from multiple lists

Given several lists, gather together the first element from every list, the second element from every list, and so on for all corresponding index values in the lists. E.g. for these three lists, first = ['Bruce', 'Tommy Lee', 'Bruce'], last = ['Willis', 'Jones', 'Lee'], years = [1955, 1946, 1940] the result should produce 3 actors. The middle actor should be Tommy Lee Jones.
erlang
First = ['Bruce', 'Tommy Lee', 'Bruce'], Last = ['Willis', 'Jones', 'Lee'], Years = [1955, 1946, 1940],

Result = lists:zip3(First, Last, Years),

List Combinations

Given two source lists (or sets), generate a list (or set) of all the pairs derived by combining elements from the individual lists (sets). E.g. given suites = ['H', 'D', 'C', 'S'] and faces = ['2', '3', '4', '5', '6', '7', '8', '9', '10', 'J', 'Q', 'K', 'A'], generate the deck of 52 cards, confirm the deck size and check it contains an expected card, say 'Ace of Hearts'.
erlang
Cards = lists:foldl(fun (Suite, Acc) -> Acc ++ lists:flatmap(fun (Face) -> [{Suite, Face}] end, Faces) end, [], Suites),

io:format("Deck has ~B cards~n", [length(Cards)]),
IsMember = lists:member({h, 'A'}, Cards),
io:format("~s~n", [if IsMember -> "Deck contains 'Ace of Hearts'" ; true -> "'Ace of Hearts' not in deck" end]),
Cards = sofs:to_external(sofs:product(sofs:set(Suites), sofs:set(Faces))),

io:format("Deck has ~B cards~n", [length(Cards)]),
IsMember = lists:member({h, 'A'}, Cards),
io:format("~s~n", [if IsMember -> "Deck contains 'Ace of Hearts'" ; true -> "'Ace of Hearts' not in deck" end]),
Deck2 = [{S, V} || S <- [d, c, h, s], V <- [2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 'J', 'Q', 'K', 'A']],
52 = length(Deck2),
true = lists:member({h, 'A'}, Deck2).

Perform an operation on every item of a list

Perform an operation on every item of a list, e.g.
for the list ["ox", "cat", "deer", "whale"] calculate
the list of sizes of the strings, e.g. [2, 3, 4, 5]
erlang
lists:map(fun (X) ->length(X) end, List).

Split a list of things into numbers and non-numbers

Given a list that might contain e.g. a string, an integer, a float and a date,
split the list into numbers and non-numbers.
erlang
% Wrapped call to the auxiliary function
number_split(Xs) ->
number_split(Xs, [], []).

% The auxiliary function
number_split([], Num, NonNum) ->
{Num, NonNum};
number_split([X|Xs], Num, NonNum) ->
case is_number(X) of
true ->
number_split(Xs, [X|Num], NonNum);
false ->
number_split(Xs, Num, [X|NonNum])
end.
List = ["hello", 25, 3.14, calendar:local_time()],
{Numbers, NonNumbers} = lists:partition(fun(E) -> is_number(E) end, List)

Test if a condition holds for all items of a list

Given a list, test if a certain logical condition (i.e. predicate) holds for all items of the list.
erlang
Result = lists:all(Pred, List).

Test if a condition holds for any items of a list

Given a list, test if a certain logical condition (i.e. predicate) holds for any items of the list.
erlang
Result = lists:any(Pred, List).

Define an empty map

erlang
Map = dict:new(),
Map = orddict:new(),
Map = gb_trees:empty(),
Map = ets:new(the_map_name, [set, private, {keypos, 1}]),

Define an unmodifiable empty map

erlang

% Erlang data structures are immutable - updating a 'map' sees a modified copy created
Map = dict:new(),

Define an initial map

Define the map {circle:1, triangle:3, square:4}
erlang
Map = dict:from_list([{circle, 1}, {triangle, 3}, {square, 4}]),
Map0 = dict:new(),

% Erlang variables are 'single-assignment' i.e. they cannot be reassigned
Map1 = dict:store(circle, 1, Map0),
Map2 = dict:store(triangle, 3, Map1),
Map3 = dict:store(square, 4, Map2),
Map0 = gb_trees:empty(),

Map1 = gb_trees:enter(circle, 1, Map0),
Map2 = gb_trees:enter(triangle, 3, Map1),
Map3 = gb_trees:enter(square, 4, Map2),
Map = gb_trees:from_orddict(lists:keysort(1, [{circle, 1}, {triangle, 3}, {square, 4}])),
Map = ets:new(the_map_name, [ordered_set, private, {keypos, 1}]),
ets:insert(Map, [{circle, 1}, {triangle, 3}, {square, 4}]),

Check if a key exists in a map

Given a map pets {joe:cat,mary:turtle,bill:canary} print "ok" if an pet exists for "mary"
erlang
dict:is_key(mary, Pets) andalso begin io:format("ok~n"), true end.
IsMember = ets:member(Pets, mary), if (IsMember) -> io:format("ok~n") ; true -> false end.
case gb_trees:lookup(mary, Pets) of none -> false ; _ -> io:format("ok~n") end.

Retrieve a value from a map

Given a map pets {joe:cat,mary:turtle,bill:canary} print the pet for "joe" ("cat")
erlang
dict:is_key(joe, Pets) andalso begin io:format("~w~n", [dict:fetch(joe, Pets)]), true end.
case dict:find(joe, Pets) of error -> false ; {ok, Pet} -> io:format("~w~n", [Pet]) end.
IsMember = ets:member(Pets, joe), if (IsMember) -> io:format("~w~n", [ets:lookup_element(Pets, joe, 2)]) ; true -> false end.
case ets:match(Pets, {joe, '$1'}) of [] -> false ; [[Pet]] -> io:format("~w~n", [Pet]) end.
case gb_trees:lookup(joe, Pets) of none -> false ; {value, Pet} -> io:format("~w~n", [Pet]) end.

Add an entry to a map

Given an empty pets map, add the mapping from "rob" to "dog"
erlang
Pets1 = dict:store(rob, dog, Pets0).
ets:insert(Pets, {rob, dog}).
Pets1 = gb_trees:enter(rob, dog, Pets0).

Remove an entry from a map

Given a map pets {joe:cat,mary:turtle,bill:canary} remove the mapping for "bill" and print "canary"
erlang
Pet = dict:fetch(bill, Pets0), Pets1 = dict:erase(bill, Pets0), io:format("~w~n", [Pet]),
Pet = ets:lookup_element(Pets, bill, 2), ets:delete(Pets, bill), io:format("~w~n", [Pet]),
{value, Pet} = gb_trees:lookup(bill, Pets0), Pets1 = gb_trees:delete(bill, Pets0), io:format("~w~n", [Pet]),

Create a histogram map from a list

Given the list [a,b,a,c,b,b], produce a map {a:2, b:3, c:1} which contains the count of each unique item in the list
erlang
% Imperative Solution
Histogram = histogram(List),
% Functional (1) Solution
Histogram = histogram(List),
lists:foldl(fun(Elem, OldDict) ->
dict:update_counter(Elem, 1, OldDict)
end,
dict:new(),
[a,b,a,c,b,b])).

Categorise a list

Given the list [one, two, three, four, five] produce a map {3:[one, two], 4:[four, five], 5:[three]} which sorts elements into map entries based on their length
erlang
% Imperative Solution
CatList = categorise(List),
% Functional (1) Solution
CatList = categorise(List),

Perform an action if a condition is true (IF .. THEN)

Given a variable name, if the value is "Bob", display the string "Hello, Bob!". Perform no action if the name is not equal.
erlang
if (Name == "Bob") -> io:format("Hello, ~s!~n", [Name]) ; true -> false end.
case Name of "Bob" -> io:format("Hello, ~s!~n", [Name]) ; _ -> false end.
Name == "Bob" andalso (begin io:format("Hello, ~s!~n", [Name]), true end).

Perform different actions depending on a boolean condition (IF .. THEN .. ELSE)

Given a variable age, if the value is greater than 42 display "You are old", otherwise display "You are young"
erlang
if Age > 42 -> io:format("You are old~n") ; true -> io:format("You are young~n") end.
Message = if Age > 42 -> "old" ; true -> "young" end, io:format("You are ~s~n", [Message]).
case Age > 42 of true -> io:format("You are old~n") ; false -> io:format("You are young~n") end.
case Age of _ when Age > 42 -> io:format("You are old~n") ; _ -> io:format("You are young~n") end.
Message = case Age of _ when Age > 42 -> "old" ; _ -> "young" end, io:format("You are ~s~n", [Message]).
Age > 42 andalso (begin io:format("You are old~n"), true end) orelse (begin io:format("You are young~n"), true end).
(fun (X) when X > 42 -> io:format("You are old~n"); (_) -> io:format("You are young~n") end)(Age).
(fun () when Age > 42 -> io:format("You are old~n"); () -> io:format("You are young~n") end)().
io:format("You are ~s~n", [if Age > 42 -> "old" ; true -> "young" end]).

Perform different actions depending on several boolean conditions (IF .. THEN .. ELSIF .. ELSE)

erlang
if
Age > 84 -> io:format("You are really ancient~n");
Age > 30 -> io:format("You are middle-aged~n");
true -> io:format("You are young~n")
end.
case Age of
_ when Age > 84 -> io:format("You are really ancient~n");
_ when Age > 30 -> io:format("You are middle-aged~n");
true -> io:format("You are young~n")
end.

Replacing a conditional with many branches with a switch/case statement

Many languages support more compact forms of branching than just if ... then ... else such as switch or case or match. Use such a form to add an appropriate placing suffix to the numbers 1..40, e.g. 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, ..., 11th, 12th, ... 39th, 40th
erlang
Suffix = case Num of
N when N > 10, N < 20 -> "th";
N when N rem 10 =:= 1 -> "st";
N when N rem 10 =:= 2 -> "nd";
N when N rem 10 =:= 3 -> "rd";
_ -> "th"
end,
io_lib:format("~w~s", [Num, Suffix])

Perform an action multiple times based on a boolean condition, checked before the first action (WHILE .. DO)

Starting with a variable x=1, Print the sequence "1,2,4,8,16,32,64,128," by doubling x and checking that x is less than 150.
erlang
X = 1, print_while_X_less_150(X).
Pred = fun (X) -> X < 150 end,
Action = fun (X) -> io:format("~B,", [X]), X * 2 end,
X = 1,

while_do(Pred, Action, X).

Perform an action multiple times based on a boolean condition, checked after the first action (DO .. WHILE)

Simulate rolling a die until you get a six. Produce random numbers, printing them until a six is rolled. An example output might be "4,2,1,2,6"
erlang
Pred = fun (DiceRoll) -> DiceRoll =/= 6 end,
Action = fun (DiceRoll) -> io:format("~B,", [DiceRoll]), dice_roll() end,

do_while(Pred, Action, dice_roll()).
-module(dice).
-export([start/0]).

start() ->
roll(dice_roll()).

roll(6) ->
io:format("6~n", []);
roll(N) ->
io:format("~B,", [N]),
roll(dice_roll()).

dice_roll() -> random:uniform(6).

Perform an action a fixed number of times (FOR)

Display the string "Hello" five times like "HelloHelloHelloHelloHello"
erlang
dotimes(5, fun () -> io:format("Hello") end).
lists:foreach(fun (_) -> io:format("Hello") end, lists:seq(1, 5)).

Perform an action a fixed number of times with a counter

Display the string "10 .. 9 .. 8 .. 7 .. 6 .. 5 .. 4 .. 3 .. 2 .. 1 .. Liftoff!"
erlang
fromto(10, 1, -1, fun (X) -> io:format("~B .. ", [X]) end), io:format("Liftoff!~n").
lists:foreach(fun (X) -> io:format("~B .. ", [X]) end, lists:seq(10, 1, -1)), io:format("Liftoff!~n").

Read the contents of a file into a string

erlang
Text = readfile("Solution607.erl"),
Text = readfile("Solution608.erl"),

Process a file one line at a time

Open the source file to your solution and print each line in the file, prefixed by the line number, like:
1> First line of file
2> Second line of file
3> Third line of file
erlang
Reader = fun (IODevice) -> io:get_line(IODevice, "") end,
Worker = fun (Line, N) -> io:format("~B> ~s", [N, Line]), N + 1 end,

while_not_eof("Solution609.erl", Reader, Worker, 1).
Reader = fun (Filename) -> {ok, Contents} = file:read_file(Filename), Contents end,
Transformer = fun (Line, N) -> string:concat(string:concat(integer_to_list(N), "> "), Line) end,
Printer = fun (Line) -> io:format("~s~n", [Line]) end,

Lines = string:tokens(binary_to_list(Reader("Solution610.erl")), "\n"),
NewLines = lists:zipwith(Transformer, Lines, lists:seq(1, length(Lines))),
lists:foreach(Printer, NewLines).

Write a string to a file

erlang
Line = "This line overwites file contents!\n",
{ok, IODevice} = file:open("test.txt", [write]), file:write(IODevice, Line), file:close(IODevice).

Append to a file

erlang
Line = "This line appended to file!\n",
{ok, IODevice} = file:open("test.txt", [append]), file:write(IODevice, Line), file:close(IODevice).

Process each file in a directory

erlang
% File basenames only - many tasks require absolute paths to work
lists:foreach(fun (FileOrDirPath) -> Worker(FileOrDirPath) end, file:list_dir(Directory)).
% Absolute paths provided - will accomodate most tasks
lists:foreach(fun (FileOrDirPath) -> Worker(FileOrDirPath) end, list_dir_path(Directory)).

Process each file in a directory recursively

erlang
filelib:fold_files(Directory, ".*", true, fun (FileOrDirPath, Acc) -> Worker(FileOrDirPath), Acc end, []).
process_dir(Directory, Worker).

Parse a date and time from a string

Given the string "2008-05-06 13:29", parse it as a date representing 6th March, 2008 1:29:00pm in the local time zone.
erlang
% AFAIK, no datetime-parsing library exists; 'parse_to_datetime' is a simplistic, problem-specific hack
LocalDateTime = erlang:universaltime_to_localtime(parse_to_datetime("2008-05-06 13:29:34")),

Display the current date and time

Create a Date object representing the current date and time. Print it out.
If you can also do this without creating a Date object you can show that too.
erlang
io:format("~p~n", [calendar:local_time()])
OOP

Define a class

Declare a class named Greeter that takes a string on creation and greets using this string if you call the "greet" method.
erlang
Greeter = make_greeter("world!"),
Greeter(greet).

Check your language appears on the langref.org site

Your language name should appear within the HTML found at the http://langreg.org main page.
erlang
URL = "http://langref.org/", Language = "erlang", Regexp = ".*" ++ URL ++ Language ++ ".*",

case http:request(URL) of
{ok, {_, _, Body}} ->
case regexp:first_match(Body, Regexp) of
{match, _, _} -> io:format("Language ~s exists @ ~s~n", [Language, URL]);
_ -> false
end;
{error, ErrorInfo} -> throw("Error: " ++ http:format_error(ErrorInfo))
end,
XML

Process an XML document

Given the XML Document:

<shopping>
  <item name="bread" quantity="3" price="2.50"/>
  <item name="milk" quantity="2" price="3.50"/>
</shopping>

Print out the total cost of the items, e.g. $14.50
erlang
-include_lib("xmerl/include/xmerl.hrl").
-export([get_total/1]).

get_total(ShoppingList) ->
{XmlElt, _} = xmerl_scan:string(ShoppingList),
Items = xmerl_xpath:string("/shopping/item", XmlElt),
Total = lists:foldl(fun(Item, Tot) ->
[#xmlAttribute{value = PriceString}] = xmerl_xpath:string("/item/@price", Item),
{Price, _} = string:to_float(PriceString),
[#xmlAttribute{value = QuantityString}] = xmerl_xpath:string("/item/@quantity", Item),
{Quantity, _} = string:to_integer(QuantityString),
Tot + Price*Quantity
end,
0, Items),
io:format("$~.2f~n", [Total]).

create some XML programmatically

Given the following CSV:

bread,3,2.50
milk,2,3.50

Produce the equivalent information in XML, e.g.:

<shopping>
  <item name="bread" quantity="3" price="2.50" />
  <item name="milk" quantity="2" price="3.50" />
</shopping>
erlang
to_xml(ShoppingList) ->
Items = lists:map(fun(L) ->
[Name, Quantity, Price] = string:tokens(L, ","),
{item, [{name, Name}, {quantity, Quantity}, {price, Price}], []}
end, string:tokens(ShoppingList, "\n")),
xmerl:export_simple([{shopping, [], Items}], xmerl_xml).

Find all Pythagorean triangles with length or height less than or equal to 20

Pythagorean triangles are right angle triangles whose sides comply with the following equation:

a * a + b * b = c * c

where c represents the length of the hypotenuse, and a and b represent the lengths of the other two sides. Find all such triangles where a, b and c are non-zero integers with a and b less than or equal to 20. Sort your results by the size of the hypotenuse. The expected answer is:

[3, 4, 5]
[6, 8, 10]
[5, 12, 13]
[9, 12, 15]
[8, 15, 17]
[12, 16, 20]
[15, 20, 25]
erlang
find_all_pythagorean_triangles(L) ->
lists:sort(fun({_, _, H1}, {_, _, H2}) -> H1 =< H2 end,
[ { X, Y, Z } ||
X <- lists:seq(1,L),
Y <- lists:seq(1,L),
Z <- lists:seq(1,2*L),
X*X + Y*Y =:= Z*Z,
Y > X,
Z > Y
]).

main(_) ->
List = find_all_pythagorean_triangles(20).

Greatest Common Divisor

Find the largest positive integer that divides two given numbers without a remainder. For example, the GCD of 8 and 12 is 4.

erlang
-module(gcd).
-export([gcd/2]).

gcd(A, 0) -> A;
gcd(A, B) -> gcd(B, A rem B).

Create a multithreaded "Hello World"

Create a program which outputs the string "Hello World" to the console, multiple times, using separate threads or processes.

Example:

-Output-

Thread one says Hello World!
Thread two says Hello World!
Thread four says Hello World!
Thread three says Hello World!

-Notice that the threads can print in any order.
erlang
-module(spam).
-export([spam/1]).

spam(N) when N<5 ->
spawn(fun() -> io:format("Hello World from thread ~p~n",[N]) end),
spam(N+1);
spam(_) -> void.