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Define an empty list

Assign the variable "list" to a list with no elements
fsharp
let list = []
let list = List.empty
let list = new Generic.List<string>()
let list = new Generic.LinkedList<string>()

Define a static list

Define the list [One, Two, Three, Four, Five]
fsharp
let list = ["One"; "Two"; "Three"; "Four"; "Five"]
let list = (new Generic.LinkedList<string>([|"One"; "Two"; "Three"; "Four"; "Five"|]))
let list = (new Generic.LinkedList<string>())

list.AddFirst("One") ; list.AddLast("Five") ; list.AddBefore(list.Find("Five"), "Four")
list.AddAfter(list.Find("One"), "Two") ; list.AddAfter(list.Find("Two"), "Three")
let list = (new Generic.List<string>())

[|"One"; "Two"; "Three"; "Four"; "Five"|] |> Array.iter (fun x -> list.Add(x))

Join the elements of a list, separated by commas

Given the list [Apple, Banana, Carrot] produce "Apple, Banana, Carrot"
fsharp
let result = String.Join(", ", [|"Apple"; "Banana"; "Carrot"|])
let result = (List.fold_left (fun acc item -> acc ^ (", " ^ item)) (List.hd fruit) (List.tl fruit))
let result = (List.fold_left (fun (acc : StringBuilder) (item : string) -> acc.Append(", ").Append(item)) (new StringBuilder(List.hd fruit)) (List.tl fruit)).ToString()

Join the elements of a list, in correct english

Create a function join that takes a List and produces a string containing an english language concatenation of the list. It should work with the following examples:
join([Apple, Banana, Carrot]) = "Apple, Banana, and Carrot"
join([One, Two]) = "One and Two"
join([Lonely]) = "Lonely"
join([]) = ""
fsharp
let join list =
let rec join' list' s =
match list' with
| [] -> s
| [w] -> join' [] (s ^ " and " ^ w)
| w :: ws -> join' ws (s ^ ", " ^ w)
match list with
| [] -> ""
| w :: ws -> join' ws w

// ------

printfn "%s" (join fruit)

Produce the combinations from two lists

Given two lists, produce the list of tuples formed by taking the combinations from the individual lists. E.g. given the letters ["a", "b", "c"] and the numbers [4, 5], produce the list: [["a", 4], ["b", 4], ["c", 4], ["a", 5], ["b", 5], ["c", 5]]
fsharp
let combinations = (List.fold_left (fun acc number -> acc @ (List.map (fun letter -> (letter, number)) letters)) [] numbers)
let combinations aa bb =
aa
|> List.map (fun a -> bb |> List.map (fun b -> (a, b)))
|> List.concat

From a List Produce a List of Duplicate Entries

Taking a list:
["andrew", "bob", "chris", "bob"]

Write the code to produce a list of duplicates in the list:
["bob"]
fsharp
["andrew"; "bob"; "chris"; "bob"]
|> Seq.countBy id
|> Seq.filter (fun (k,n) -> n > 1)
|> Seq.map fst
|> Seq.toList

Fetch an element of a list by index

Given the list [One, Two, Three, Four, Five], fetch the third element ('Three')
fsharp
let result = List.nth ["One"; "Two"; "Three"; "Four"; "Five"] 2

Fetch the last element of a list

Given the list [Red, Green, Blue], access the last element ('Blue')
fsharp
let last list =
let rec last' list' =
match list' with
| [x] -> x
| x :: xs -> last' xs
if List.is_empty list then failwith "empty list" else last' list

// ------

let result = last list
let result = (List.nth list ((List.length list) - 1))
let result = (List.hd (List.rev list))

Find the common items in two lists

Given two lists, find the common items. E.g. given beans = ['broad', 'mung', 'black', 'red', 'white'] and colors = ['black', 'red', 'blue', 'green'], what are the bean varieties that are also color names?
fsharp
let beans = (Set.of_list ["broad"; "mung"; "black"; "red"; "white"])
let colors = (Set.of_list ["black"; "red"; "blue"; "green"])
let common = (Set.intersect beans colors)
let beans = Set ["broad"; "mung"; "black"; "red"; "white"]
let colors = Set ["black"; "red"; "blue"; "green"]
let common = Set.intersect beans colors
// Iterates elements of
// list1 across Elements of list2 returning a list of string options
// as generated by List.tryFind
let findCommon(list1 : 'a list, list2 : 'a list) : 'a list =
list1 |> List.map(fun y -> list2 |> List.tryFind(fun x -> y = x))
// Iterates elements of string option list generated above
// returning a string list containing common elements of List1 and List2
|> List.fold(fun acc x -> if x <> None then x.Value::acc else acc) []
// reverse order of list (can't seem to make List.foldBack work for this
|> List.rev

let beans = ["broad"; "mung"; "black"; "red"; "white"]
let colors = ["black"; "red"; "blue"; "green"]
printfn "%A" (findCommon(beans, colors)) ;;

Display the unique items in a list

Display the unique items in a list, e.g. given ages = [18, 16, 17, 18, 16, 19, 14, 17, 19, 18], display the unique elements, i.e. with duplicates removed.
fsharp
(Set.ofList [18; 16; 17; 18; 16; 19; 14; 17; 19; 18]) |> Set.iter (fun age -> printf "%d, " age)

Remove an element from a list by index

Given the list [Apple, Banana, Carrot], remove the first element to produce the list [Banana, Carrot]
fsharp
let split_at list n =
let rec split_at' list' n' left right =
match list' with
| [] -> (List.rev left, List.rev right)
| x :: xs -> if n' <= n then split_at' xs (n' + 1) (x :: left) right else split_at' xs (n' + 1) left (x :: right)
split_at' list 0 [] []

// ------

let (_, right) = split_at fruit 0
let drop list n =
if n <= 0 then
list
else
let (_, right) = split_at list (n - 1)
right

// ------

let result = (drop fruit 1)

Remove the last element of a list

fsharp
let take list n =
if n <= 0 then
list
else
let (left, _) = split_at list (n - 1)
left

// ------

let result = (take fruit ((List.length fruit) - 1))
let but_last list =
let rec but_last' list' acc =
match list' with
| [x] -> List.rev acc
| x :: xs -> but_last' xs (x :: acc)
if List.is_empty list then [] else but_last' list []

// ------

let result = (but_last fruit)
Seq.rev xs |> Seq.tail |> Seq.rev

Rotate a list

Given a list ["apple", "orange", "grapes", "bananas"], rotate it by removing the first item and placing it on the end to yield ["orange", "grapes", "bananas", "apple"]
fsharp
let rotate list n =
if n <= 0 then
list
else
let (left, right) = split_at list (n - 1)
right @ left

// ------

let result = (rotate fruit 1)

Gather together corresponding elements from multiple lists

Given several lists, gather together the first element from every list, the second element from every list, and so on for all corresponding index values in the lists. E.g. for these three lists, first = ['Bruce', 'Tommy Lee', 'Bruce'], last = ['Willis', 'Jones', 'Lee'], years = [1955, 1946, 1940] the result should produce 3 actors. The middle actor should be Tommy Lee Jones.
fsharp
let result = (List.zip3 first last years)

List Combinations

Given two source lists (or sets), generate a list (or set) of all the pairs derived by combining elements from the individual lists (sets). E.g. given suites = ['H', 'D', 'C', 'S'] and faces = ['2', '3', '4', '5', '6', '7', '8', '9', '10', 'J', 'Q', 'K', 'A'], generate the deck of 52 cards, confirm the deck size and check it contains an expected card, say 'Ace of Hearts'.
fsharp
let cards = (List.fold_left (fun acc suite -> acc @ (List.map (fun face -> (suite, face)) faces)) [] suites)

printfn "Deck has %d cards" (List.length cards)
printfn "%s" (if (List.exists (fun e -> e = ("h", "A")) cards) then "Deck contains 'Ace of Hearts'" ; else "'Ace of Hearts' not in deck")
let product (set1 : List<'a>) (set2 : List<'a>) : List<'a * 'a> =
let p = new ResizeArray<'a * 'a>()
for e1 in set1 do for e2 in set2 do p.Add(e1, e2) done done
Array.to_list (p.ToArray())

// ------

let cards = product suites faces

printfn "Deck has %d cards" (List.length cards)
printfn "%s" (if (List.exists (fun e -> e = ("h", "A")) cards) then "Deck contains 'Ace of Hearts'" ; else "'Ace of Hearts' not in deck")
let deck =
suites
|> List.map (fun s -> faces |> List.map (fun f -> (s, f)))
|> List.concat

printfn "Deck has %d cards" (List.length deck)
match deck |> List.exists (fun e -> e = ("h", "A")) with
| true -> printfn "Deck contains 'Ace of Hearts'"
| _ -> printfn "'Ace of Hearts' not in deck"

Perform an operation on every item of a list

Perform an operation on every item of a list, e.g.
for the list ["ox", "cat", "deer", "whale"] calculate
the list of sizes of the strings, e.g. [2, 3, 4, 5]
fsharp
let lengths = List.map String.length ["ox"; "cat"; "deer"; "whale"]

Split a list of things into numbers and non-numbers

Given a list that might contain e.g. a string, an integer, a float and a date,
split the list into numbers and non-numbers.
fsharp
let (things:obj list) = [ "hello"; 25; 3.14; System.DateTime.Now ]

let isNumber (x:obj) =
match x with
| :? int | :? float | :? byte | :? decimal | :? int16 | :? int64 -> true
| _ -> false

let numbers, nonNumbers = things |> List.partition isNumber

Test if a condition holds for all items of a list

Given a list, test if a certain logical condition (i.e. predicate) holds for all items of the list.
fsharp
let rec IsAll predicate source =
let mutable acc = true
for e in source do
acc <- acc && (predicate e)
acc

Test if a condition holds for any items of a list

Given a list, test if a certain logical condition (i.e. predicate) holds for any items of the list.
fsharp
let rec IsAny predicate source =
match source with
| [] -> false
| h::t ->
if (predicate h) then true
else (IsAny predicate t )