View Category

Perform an action if a condition is true (IF .. THEN)

Given a variable name, if the value is "Bob", display the string "Hello, Bob!". Perform no action if the name is not equal.
groovy
if (name=='Bob')
println "Hello, Bob!"

Perform different actions depending on a boolean condition (IF .. THEN .. ELSE)

Given a variable age, if the value is greater than 42 display "You are old", otherwise display "You are young"
groovy
if (age > 42)
println "You are old"
else
println "You are young"
println "You are " + (age > 42 ? "old" : "young")

Perform different actions depending on several boolean conditions (IF .. THEN .. ELSIF .. ELSE)

groovy
if (age > 84)
println "You are really ancient"
else if (age > 30)
println "You are middle-aged"
else
println "You are young"

Replacing a conditional with many branches with a switch/case statement

Many languages support more compact forms of branching than just if ... then ... else such as switch or case or match. Use such a form to add an appropriate placing suffix to the numbers 1..40, e.g. 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, ..., 11th, 12th, ... 39th, 40th
groovy
def suffix(n) {
switch(n) {
case { n % 100 in 4..20 } : return 'th'
case { n % 10 == 1 } : return 'st'
case { n % 10 == 2 } : return 'nd'
case { n % 10 == 3 } : return 'rd'
default : return 'th'
}
}
(1..40).each { n ->
println "$n${suffix(n)}"
}

Perform an action multiple times based on a boolean condition, checked before the first action (WHILE .. DO)

Starting with a variable x=1, Print the sequence "1,2,4,8,16,32,64,128," by doubling x and checking that x is less than 150.
groovy
x = 1
while (x < 150) {
print x + ","
x *= 2
}
println()

Perform an action multiple times based on a boolean condition, checked after the first action (DO .. WHILE)

Simulate rolling a die until you get a six. Produce random numbers, printing them until a six is rolled. An example output might be "4,2,1,2,6"
groovy
// Groovy has no do..while; use a normal while
int dice = 0
while (dice != 6) {
dice = Math.random() * 6 + 1
print dice
if (dice != 6) print ','
}

Perform an action a fixed number of times (FOR)

Display the string "Hello" five times like "HelloHelloHelloHelloHello"
groovy
println "Hello" * 5
5.times { print "Hello" }; println()

Perform an action a fixed number of times with a counter

Display the string "10 .. 9 .. 8 .. 7 .. 6 .. 5 .. 4 .. 3 .. 2 .. 1 .. Liftoff!"
groovy
10.downto(1) { print it + " .. " }
println "Liftoff!"