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Perform an action if a condition is true (IF .. THEN)

Given a variable name, if the value is "Bob", display the string "Hello, Bob!". Perform no action if the name is not equal.
perl
if ($name eq "Bob") {
print "Hello, Bob!"
}
print "Hello, Bob!" if $name eq "Bob";

Perform different actions depending on a boolean condition (IF .. THEN .. ELSE)

Given a variable age, if the value is greater than 42 display "You are old", otherwise display "You are young"
perl
if ($age > 42) {
print "You are old"
}
else {
print "You are young"
}
print 'You are ',($age > 42) ? 'old' : 'young';

Perform different actions depending on several boolean conditions (IF .. THEN .. ELSIF .. ELSE)

perl
if ($age > 84) {
print "You are really ancient";
} elsif ($age > 30) {
print "You are middle-aged";
} else {
print "You are young";
}
print 'You are ',
$age > 84 ? 'really ancient!'
: $age > 30 ? 'middle-aged'
: 'young';

Replacing a conditional with many branches with a switch/case statement

Many languages support more compact forms of branching than just if ... then ... else such as switch or case or match. Use such a form to add an appropriate placing suffix to the numbers 1..40, e.g. 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, ..., 11th, 12th, ... 39th, 40th
perl
sub suffix {
my $n = shift;

return 'th' if $n % 100 >= 4 && $n % 100 <= 20;
return 'st' if $n % 10 == 1;
return 'nd' if $n % 10 == 2;
return 'rd' if $n % 10 == 3;
return 'th';

}

foreach my $n (1..40) {
print $n.suffix($n)."\n";
}

Perform an action multiple times based on a boolean condition, checked before the first action (WHILE .. DO)

Starting with a variable x=1, Print the sequence "1,2,4,8,16,32,64,128," by doubling x and checking that x is less than 150.
perl
my $x = 1;
while($x < 150) {
print $x, ",";
$x *=2
}

Perform an action multiple times based on a boolean condition, checked after the first action (DO .. WHILE)

Simulate rolling a die until you get a six. Produce random numbers, printing them until a six is rolled. An example output might be "4,2,1,2,6"
perl
do {
my $number = int(rand(6)+1);
print $number;
print ',' if ($number != 6);
} while ($number != 6);

Perform an action a fixed number of times (FOR)

Display the string "Hello" five times like "HelloHelloHelloHelloHello"
perl
print "Hello" x 5
print "Hello" for (1..5)

Perform an action a fixed number of times with a counter

Display the string "10 .. 9 .. 8 .. 7 .. 6 .. 5 .. 4 .. 3 .. 2 .. 1 .. Liftoff!"
perl
for (my $i = 10; $i > 0; $i--) {
print "$i .. ";
}
print "Liftoff!";
print "$_ .. " for reverse 1..10;
print "Liftoff!";